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The Biggest Threat To The World Peace: Ethnic Conflict

Ethnic Conflict Is Biggest Threat To The World Peace All Times

Peace is one of the most important things in the world. It contributes to a lot of things for human. Each people explain the peace differently.  Some people think that peace is the land, place or environment which doesn’t involve conflict , fighting and debate among people. Others think that it is the sign which states the end of the war. Apart from this, David P. Barash and Charles P. Webel explain that peace isn’t easy to define in contrast to many theoritical terms. Thanks to its absence, we can identify it like happiness, harmony, justice and freedom. Hence, Johan Galtung, who is the establisher  of  the peace  studies  and  peace research , has suggested the significant differences  between “positive” and “negative” peace.”Positive” peace reveal the simultaneous presence of many desirable states of mind and society, such as harmony, justice, equity, etc. Other forms of large-scale violent conflict and the “absence of war” has been revealed by “Negative” peace. In addition, many philosophical, religious, and cultural traditions have stated the peace in its positive sense. For instance ,the word heping explains world peace, peace among nations , while the words an and  mingsi explain an “inner peace,” a tranquil and  harmanious state of mind and being , similar to a madiative mental state. Also, peace is indicated in ”inner” and “outer” dimensions by other languages. According to these statements, peace is positive thing for life.(Peace and Conflict Studies p.4, 2009 )However, there are  several things which have bad impact on the peace such as unequality, lack of democracy, poverty and some types of conflicts such as religious, historical and ethnic. Security dilemma, ancient hatred, putting different ethnic groups together and dividing people in order to control them cause ethnic conflicts. According to Jonathan Fox, both self-determination and religion cause ethnic conflicts. Self-determination often engage in violence. Due to self-determination of minorities, religion cause conflict. In addition, religion lead to expressing phsychological need for protest.(Beyond Belief Religion-Jonathan Fox, 2004 ) This thought is true because ethnicitiy involve religion .  Owing to religion,many wars broke out. Thus, ethnic conflict is biggest threat to the peace due to several reasons.

Firstly, ethnic conflict causes war and terror in the world. There are several well-known teror organizations in the world such as ETA and IRA. ETA was established by Basques and the aim of ETA is separation from Spain. This group cause the death of a lot of people.It proves that ethnic conflict leads to separations and deaths in the states. Paul Wilkinson says that ETA organize terror effectively in the Basque regions and against Spanish aims in the Madrid. Moreover, there are some members of ETA in France. They are arrested by military forces there. Nevertheless, ETA members who aren’t arrested, organize terror events there. Their protests affect not only Spain but also France.( Security and terrorism in the 21st century, January 13 , The Changing Internationally Terrorist Threat) If there is ethnic conflict in one country , terrorism will be there. Despite precautions, terror events cannot be reduced. Apart from this , although foreign countries intervene terror , other members who aren’t captured protests against them and causes alot of harms in the world. Michael T.Snarr and D.Neil Snarr state that the Israel is Jewish state and the Palestine includes Arabs. Also, they say that people who live in Israel are eventually twenty percent of the Muslim. The others are Christians and Druze Arabs. Despite  living in Israel, they cannot enjoy all the rights of citizenship. This case expresses not only violent but also  nonviolent means. Furthermore, terrorist tactics are used there by extremist groups.(Introducing Global Issues Fourth Edition P. 44, 2008 )According to Simon Chesterman, India-Pakistan conflict signed to hostilities between the India and Pakistan regions, so this is the threat to the international peace.(Just War or Just Peace? P. 124, 2001 ) If the independence of Pakistan is searched, ethnic  conflicts can be understood. While Indians believe in Hindu religion, Pakistanis are Muslim. There were ethnic conflicts among them at that time. Then they led to confusion in India. Because of bad relations which was caused by ethnic conflicts between Indians and Pakistanis, there wasn’t unity in India and it was splitted on account of them. Additionally, there are wars which similar to these in some countries. War can break out  in multi-ethnic societies. In multi ethnic societies, rate of breaking war higher than 50% in contrast to others. For instance, there were conflicts between the Arab muslims and black non-Muslims in Sudan. David Matwok who was young militiaman in the pay of Sudan’s Arab government explained that this war was clodier. Being member of the Nuer tribe he was shot. A lot of people who was the member of Nuer tribe was killed. (The Economist (US) , May 24 2003, 28 FEB 2008 ) There are events which are similar to it in multi ethnic states . Although there is democracy, people who are from different ethnicitiy ,religion or tribe cannot get along easily. Hence, people who are from different religions or ethnics cannot reach peace.

Secondly,  ethnic conflict causes genocide in some countries. For example, there are people who are from two ethnic groups in Rwanda such as Hutu and Tutsi. Then conflicts occured there and disagreement was arised from among these groups. Consequently, the biggest genocide took place in the world. It affected all human in the world. Simon Chesterman give informations about this conflict which caused genocide that Western media defined it as a “tribal conflict” between the majority Hutu and minority Tutsi, the violence was more properly understood as a cruel attempt by the Hutu-dominated Rwandan military to destroy its opposition. This event brokes out within hours. Then Hutus had killed Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana and seized control of the government. According to assertions, Habyarimama had been assassinated by Tutsi rebels. This led to rampages against Tutsis and moderate Hutus by security forces and armed gangs loyal to the government. In addition, national army trained Hutu militias. Simplicity of the weapons with which it was fought heightened the cruelty of the conflict. The scale of the carnage was played down early UN reports.The Secretary-General said that 250,000 and 500,000 Rwandans, mostly Tutsi, had been killed. (Just  War or Just peace ? P. 144,2001 ) Death of these people evaluate that genocide depends on ethnic conflicts so, they are the biggest threat to the peace all times.

To conclude, due to several causes ethnic conflict is the biggest threat to the peace all times. Various types of conflict led to the civil wars, terrors and some genocides. They cause death of a lot of people and affected the human emotions. Beside, it affects nature and environment badly. Consequently, ethnic conflicts are first step of destruction. If ethnic conflict problem is solved, peace  will be able to permanent.

 

REFERENCES:

Just War or Just Peace? – Humanitarian Intervention and International Law – Simon Chesterman, 2001

Peace and Conflict Studies –  2nd Edition – David P. Barash Charles P. Webel, 2009

Introducing Global Issues – 4th Edition – Michael T. Snarr & D. Neil Snarr ,2008

Beyond Belief Religions – Jonathan Fox, 2004

The Economist (US) May 24, 2003 Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale University of Pittsburgh Libraries, 28 Feb. 2008

Security and terrorism in the 21st century, January 13 –Paul Wilkinson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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